Andronikos II Palaiologos

Andronikos II Palaiologos
   Emperor (q.v.) from 12821328, during whose long reign Byzantium's (q.v.) final decline began. Andronikos's first problem was to heal the wounds opened by his father Michael VIII's union of the churches (qq.v.). Despite his renunciation of the Council of Lyons (q.v), which had effected that union, despite his removal of Patriarch John XI Bekkos (q.v.) and the reinstatement of Patriarch Joseph I (q.v.), despite even the release from prison of those who had opposed union, the Arsenite (q.v.) extremists were not satisfied. Failure to heal the wounds within the church was mirrored by other failures at home and abroad. The coinage, the hyperpyron, continued to be devalued, and the monies saved by reducing the size of the navy were not enough to alleviate the general economic distress. Instead, the empire was forced to rely on the Genoese. As a result, he was drawn into a war between Venice (q.v.) and Genoa that lasted from 1296-1302. The rest of his foreign policy consisted of concentrating on protecting Byzantine territory in Asia Minor (q.v.) while using diplomacy to ward off Serbia and Bulgaria (qq.v). The advancing Serbs (q.v.) were bought off by the marriage of Andronikos's five-year-old daughter Simonis to Stefan Urosh II Milutin (q.v.), in addition to Byzantine acceptance of Serbian seizure of Skopje in Macedonia (qq.v.). However, the Ottoman advance in Asia Minor (q.v.) was relentless after the Byzantine defeat at Bapheus (1302), culminating in the capture of Prousa (q.v.) in 1326. Andronikos hired the Catalan Grand Company (q.v.), who won some successes against the Ottomans in 1304. That same year they joined forces with some Alan (q.v.) mercenaries, but they soon fell out with them; the Alans decided to pillage Thrace (q.v.) instead. When Catalan commander Roger de Flor (q.v.) was assassinated in 1305, the Catalans themselves went on a rampage in Greece (q.v.) that ceased only in 1311 when they established the duchy of Athens and Thebes (qq.v.). Thereafter, until 1321, there was a lull in military activities, giving the empire a breather. However, from 1321-1328, the final years of Andronikos II's reign, a tragic civil war occurred with his grandson, who finally overthrew him to become Andronikos III (q.v.). Perhaps Andronikos II is best remembered as a lover of the arts and of scholarship, a patron of men such as Theodore Metochites and Nikephoros Gregoras (qq.v.).

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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  • Andronikos II Palaiologos — or Andronicus II Palaeologus (Greek: polytonic|Ανδρόνικος Β Παλαιολόγος) (25 March 1259, Constantinople ndash; February 13, 1332, Constantinople), reigned as Byzantine emperor 1282 ndash;1328. Andronikos II Palaiologos was the eldest surviving… …   Wikipedia

  • Andronikos IV Palaiologos — or Andronicus IV Palaeologus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Δ Παλαιολόγος, Andronikos IV Paleologos , April 2, 1348 ndash; June 28, 1385), was Byzantine emperor from 1376 to 1379.LifeAndronikos IV Palaiologos was the eldest son of Emperor John V Palaiologos… …   Wikipedia

  • Andronikos III Palaiologos — or Andronicus III Palaeologus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Γ Παλαιολόγος, Andronikos III Paleologos ; hy. Անդրանիկ Գ Պաղեւողոկ, Antranig Kim Baghevoghog ; March 25, 1297, Constantinople – June 15, 1341, Constantinople) reigned as Byzantine emperor… …   Wikipedia

  • Andronikos III. Palaiologos — (griechisch Ἀνδρόνικος Γ ὁ Νέος Παλαιολόγος, * 1296 in Konstantinopel; † 15. Juni 1341 ebenda) war von 1328 bis zu seinem Tod byzantinischer Kaiser. Er war der Sohn des Michael Palaiologos und der armenischen Prinzessin Rita (Maria), einer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Andronikos V Palaiologos — or Andronicus V Palaeologus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Ε Παλαιολόγος) (c. 1400 ndash; c. 1407) was co emperor of the Byzantine Empire with his father John VII Palaiologos.LifeAndronikos V Palaiologos was the only known son of Emperor John VII Palaiologos …   Wikipedia

  • Andronikos II. Palaiologos — Andronikos II auf einem Wandfresko im Kloster Serres Andronikos II. Palaiologos (griechisch Ἀνδρόνικος Β Παλαιολόγος, * 1259/1260 in Nikaia; † 13. Februar 1332 in …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Andronikos III Palaiologos —    Emperor (q.v.) from 13281341. The real power behind the throne was John Kantakouzenos (q.v.), who had helped dethrone Andronikos II (q.v.). Andronikos III proved to be a good general, winning victories against lesser foes in Thessaly and… …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Andronikos IV Palaiologos —    Emperor (q.v.) from 13761379 who came to the throne by overthrowing his father John V with Ottoman (qq.v.) help. For this, Sultan Murad I (q.v.) was given Gallipolis (q.v.). However, although Andronikos had gained Constantinople (q.v.), he was …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Andronikos Palaiologos, Lord of Thessaloniki — Andronikos Palaiologos or Andronicus Palaeologus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος) (1403 ndash; 4 March, 1428) was governor of Thessalonica with the title of despot ( despotēs ) from 1408 to 1423.Andronikos Palaiologos was a son of the Byzantine… …   Wikipedia

  • Andronikos II. (Byzanz) — Andronikos II auf einem Fresko im Kloster Serres Andronikos II. Palaiologos (griechisch Ἀνδρόνικος Β Παλαιολόγος, * 1259/1260 in Nikaia; † 13. Februar 1332 in Konstantinopel) war byzantinischer Kais …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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